Rabu, 26 Maret 2008

Pilih Cara Inovatif Untuk Pelatihan




Oleh: Betti Alisjahbana

Dunia kini semakin datar, bukan karena dunia kehilangan bentuk bundarnya, tetapi persaingan di dunia bisnis sudah semakin imbang. Situs web yang semakin menjamur dan relatif tidak mahal bisa dimanfaatkan oleh perusahaan besar maupun kecil. Perubahan yang tak henti-hentinya serta berbagai disrupsi yang datang dari dunia bisnis, politik, dan alam diberbagai belahan bumi, semakin besar pengaruhnya di dunia yang saling ter-interkoneksi kini.

Organisasi yang berkinerja terbaik bukan lagi yang terbesar dan terkuat, melainkan yang paling inovatif, paling bisa menyesuaikan diri dengan perubahan. Kita ada dalam situasi “on demand” dimana informasi, solusi dan hasil harus dapat diperoleh segera saat dibutuhkan.

Hal yang sama terjadi pada pelatihan. Meskipun cara mengajar traditional seperti dalam kelas, kuliah dan materi cetakan tetap memberikan manfaat bagi perorangan, tim dan organisasi, situasi pasar bergerak sangat cepat. Kebutuhan untuk bisa menjawab kebutuhan klien yang berubah dengan cepat membutuhkan pendekatan yang berbeda dalam pelatihan.

Fokus pelatihan harus diperluas melebihi sekedar individual menjadi mencakup tim dan organisasi. Pelatihan harus menjadi kendaraan untuk meningkatkan kerja sama dalam organisasi termasuk mata rantai suplainya. Mereka yang belajar harus terlibat dalam membentuk pengalaman belajarnya, tidak sekedar menerima secara pasif. Kesempatan belajar harus terintegrasi dalam proses alur kerja, sehingga memungkinkan kita belajar sambil bekerja.

Organisasi harus menyadari kebutuhan ini sejak awal untuk dapat mentrasformasikan proses belajar. Belajar melalui interaksi antar muka terlalu makan waktu dan mahal dan tidak sesuai lagi dengan perkembangan dunia modern. Dunia ”on-demand” membutuhkan kebijakan pelatihan yang sesuai.

Pelatihan terpadu, mengkombinasikan cara lama dan baru

Pelatihan “on demand” memungkinkan organisasi untuk mengalihkan penekanan dari “pekerja pergi ke tempat belajar” menjadi “pelajaran di datangkan pada pekerja dan pekerjaannya”. Dengan jadwal kerja yang semakin padat, pekerja yang tinggi mobilisasinya, serta peran/jabatan yang sering berubah, cara belajar harus disesuaikan agar cocok dengan kebutuhan masing-masing individu. Paduan system belajar yang mengkombinasikan pelajaran dalam kelas, pelajaran online, pelajaran kolaboratif virtual dan pelajaran interaktif adalah solusi yang baik.

Pendekatan belajar terpadu dapat mencakup :

Belajar dari informasi - Materi pendukung pekerjaan, materi referensi sering kali digunakan sebagai titik awal. Biasanya materi-materi ini berbasis Web dan memanfaatkan transfer informasi secara online. Hal ini memungkinkan seseorang mengakses hanya materi yang dibutuhkannya dan relevan dengan fungsi pekerjaan dan kebutuhan bisnis saat itu. Pelajar bisa belajar sesuai dengan kecepatan belajar pribadinya sehingga menambah motivasi dan membuat mereka bisa belajar lebih cepat dan komprehensif.

Belajar dari interaksi, simulasi atau permainan – Umumnya berbasis multimedia. Tipe belajar ini membuat pelajar bisa latihan dengan skenario seperti di dunia nyata secara online. Dengan memanfaatkan informasi yang telah dipelajari dalam pendekatan sebelumnya, pelajar bisa jalan sendiri menggunakan modul-modul spesifik dan permainan interaktif, coaching dan simulasi yang barlapis-lapis. Latihan seperti ini menyediakan pilihan respond yang bervariasi sehingga membantu pelajar menguasai kompetensi yang relevan.

Belajar secara kolaboratif – Pendekatan ini memungkinkan peserta untuk bekerja dengan teman sejawatnya dalam kelas virtual, e-labs dan sesi-sesi kolaboratif untuk membangun kesadaran akan dunia nyata dan kemampuan bekerja dalam tim melalui conferensi baik fisik maupun online. Sesi-sesi ini umumnya difasilitasi, artinya ada ahlinya yang memberikan skenario dan memonitor serta mengarahkan diskusi.

Belajar dalam kelas – Adalah diskusi tentang pelajaran-pelajaran untuk melengkapi dan memperkaya ketiga pendekatan sebelumnya. Pendekatan ini mencakup belajar dalam laboratorium, sesi dalam kelas, mentoring, permainan peran, coaching dan akses pada para ahli (Subject Matter Experts) juga ujian dan studi kasus yang sebenarnya.

Transformasi pelatihan sangat diperlukan.
Dunia bisnis masa kini tidak dapat dioperasikan dengan cara lama. Untuk mendapatkan keunggulan kompetitif, memaksimumkan pendapatan dan mengurangi resiko, perusahaan harus menyediakan dan menerapkan cara belajar inovatif yang akan menjawab tantangan-tantangan masa kini.

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